Complete Guide on Human Anatomy with Parts, Names & Diagram

Overview of Human Anatomy and Physiology

The human body comprises 200 bones, 650 muscles, 79 organs, and an extensive network of blood arteries. Within this organized framework, a complex collaboration of individual cells is present, diligently fulfilling their unique roles to sustain life. In our body’s unique design, there are two fundamental disciplines: physiology, which tells about the inner workings of the human body, and anatomy, which explores its complex structure. Human anatomy analyzes the body’s architecture, from the tiniest cellular components to the formation of tissues, organs, and interconnected systems. By studying human body anatomy, we gain valuable insights into the construction of our bodies and the cooperative relations among its diverse components, all of which are essential for preserving life.

Human Anatomy Diagram

Human Body Parts Name

Skeletal System

  • Axial Skeleton
    • Skull
      • Cranial Bones
        • Frontal bone
        • Parietal bones (2)
        • Temporal bones (2)
        • Occipital bone
        • Sphenoid bone
        • Ethmoid bone
      • Facial Bones
        • Nasal bones (2)
        • Maxilla bones (2)
        • Zygomatic bones (2)
        • Lacrimal bones (2)
        • Palatine bones (2)
        • Inferior nasal conchae (2)
        • Vomer bone
        • Mandible
    • Hyoid Bone
    • Auditory Ossicles
      • Malleus (hammer)
      • Incus (anvil)
      • Stapes (stirrup)
    • Vertebral Column (Spine)
      • Cervical Vertebrae (7)
      • Thoracic Vertebrae (12)
      • Lumbar Vertebrae (5)
      • Sacrum (5 fused vertebrae)
      • Coccyx (3-5 fused vertebrae)
    • Ribs
      • True Ribs (1-7)
      • False Ribs (8-12)
        • Vertebrochondral Ribs (8-10)
        • Floating Ribs (11-12)
  • Sternum (Breastbone)
    • Manubrium
    • Body (gladiolus)
    • Xiphoid process
  • Thoracic cage
    • Thoracic cavity
    • Superior thoracic aperture (thoracic inlet)
    • Inferior thoracic aperture
    • Intercostal space
    • Infrasternal angle
  • Appendicular Skeleton
    • Pectoral Girdle (Shoulder Girdle)
      • Clavicle (Collarbone)
      • Scapula (Shoulder Blade)
    • Upper Limb (Arm)
      • Humerus
      • Radius
      • Ulna
      • Carpal Bones
      • Metacarpal Bones
      • Phalanges (Finger Bones)
    • Pelvic Girdle (Hip Girdle)
      • Ilium
      • Ischium
      • Pubis
      • Acetabulum
    • Lower Limb (Leg)
      • Femur
      • Patella (Kneecap)
      • Tibia
      • Fibula
      • Tarsal Bones
      • Metatarsal Bones
      • Phalanges (Toe Bones)
  • Joints
    • Head and Neck Joints
      • Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ)
      • Atlanto-occipital Joint
    • Spinal Joints
      • Intervertebral Joints
      • Facet Joints (Zygapophyseal Joints)
      • Atlantoaxial Joint
    • Shoulder Joints
      • Glenohumeral Joint
      • Acromioclavicular Joint
      • Sternoclavicular Joint
    • Elbow Joint
      • Humeroulnar Joint
      • Humeroradial Joint
      • Proximal Radioulnar Joint
    • Wrist and Hand Joints:
      • Radiocarpal Joint
      • Intercarpal Joints
      • Carpometacarpal Joints
      • Metacarpophalangeal Joints (MCP Joints)
      • Interphalangeal Joints (IP Joints)
    • Hip Joint (Coxal Joint)
      • Acetabulofemoral Joint
    • Knee Joint
      • Tibiofemoral Joint
      • Patellofemoral Joint
    • Ankle and Foot Joints
      • Talocrural Joint (Ankle Joint)
      • Subtalar Joint
      • Midtarsal Joint (Chopart’s Joint)
      • Tarsometatarsal Joints
      • Metatarsophalangeal Joints (MTP Joints)
      • Interphalangeal Joints (IP Joints)
  • Cartilage
  • Ligaments
  • Tendons
  • Bone Marrow
  • Periosteum
  • Sesamoid Bones

Female reproductive system

  • Ovary
    • Ligament of ovary
    • Suspensory ligament of ovary
  • Fallopian tube
  • Uterus
    • Cervix of uterus
    • Round ligament of uterus
    • Pubocervical ligament
    • Cardinal ligament
    • Uterosacral ligament
  • Va*ina
    • Hymen
    • Epoophoron
    • Paroophoron
  • Vulva
    • Mons pubis
    • Labia
  • Vestibule of va*ina
  • Bulb of vestibule
  • Clit*ris
    • Glans
    • Clitoral hood
  • Urinary meatus
    • Female urethra
  • Bartholin’s gland
  • Skene’s gland

Male reproductive system

  • Te*ticle
    • Tunica va*inalis
    • Tunica albuginea
    • Seminiferous tubules
    • Straight tubules
    • Rete testis
  • Epididymis
  • Paradidymis
  • Spermatic cord
    • Cremaster
  • Vas deferens
  • Seminal vesicle
  • Seminal gland
    • Ejaculatory duct
  • Prostate
  • Bulbourethral gland
  • Penis
    • Glans
  • Foreskin
  • Body of penis
    • Corpus cavernosum penis
    • Corpus spongiosum penis
  • Helicine arteries
  • Fascia of penis
    • Suspensory ligament of the penis
  • Urinary meatus
    • Male urethra
  • Scrotum
    • Dartos fascia
  • Perineum
    • Perineal body
    • Subcutaneous perineal pouch
    • Superficial perineal pouch
    • Deep perineal pouch
    • Ischio-anal fossa

Sense organs

  • Eye
  • Ear
  • Nose
  • Tongue

Integumentary system

  • Skin
  • Hair
  • Nail
  • Breast
  • Subcutaneous tissue

Human Muscle Anatomy

  • Upper Body Muscles
    • Thorax Muscles
      • Pectoralis major
      • Pectoralis minor
      • Subclavius
      • Serratus anterior
      • Levatores costarum
      • External intercostal muscle
      • Internal intercostal muscle
      • Innermost intercostal muscle
      • Subcostales
      • Transversus thoracic
      • Pectoral fascia
      • Clavipectoral fascia
      • Thoracic fascia
      • Endothoracic fascia
      • Thoracic diaphragm
    • Shoulder Muscles (Deltoid Muscles)
      • Anterior Deltoid
      • Medial Deltoid
      • Posterior Deltoid
    • Upper Arm Muscles (Arm Muscles)
      • Biceps Brachii
        • Long Head
        • Short Head
      • Brachialis
      • Brachioradialis
    • Back Muscles
      • Trapezius
      • Latissimus dorsi
      • Rhomboid major
      • Rhomboid minor
      • Levator scapulae
      • Serratus posterior inferior
      • Serratus posterior superior
      • Anterior cervical intertransversarii
      • Lateral posterior cervical intertransversarii
      • Intertransversarii laterales lumborum
      • Erector spinae
        • Erector spinae aponeurosis
        • Iliocostalis
        • Longissimus
        • Spinalis
      • Spinotransversales
        • Splenius
      • Transversospinales
        • Multifidus
        • Semispinalis
        • Rotatores
      • Interspinales
      • Intertransversarii
      • Thoracolumbar fascia
    • Neck Muscles:
      • Platysma
      • Longus colli
      • Longus capitis
      • Scalenus anterior
      • Scalenus medius
      • Scalenus posterior
      • Sternocleidomastoid
      • Suboccipital muscles
      • Suprahyoid muscles
      • Infrahyoid muscles
    • Rotator Cuff Muscles:
      • Supraspinatus
      • Infraspinatus
      • Teres Minor
      • Subscapularis
    • Abdominal Muscles (Upper Abdomen)
      • Rectus abdominis
      • Pyramidalis
      • External oblique
        • Inguinal ligament
      • Superficial inguinal ring
      • Internal oblique
        • Cremaster
      • Transversus abdominis
        • Inguinal falx
        • Deep inguinal ring
      • Linea alba
      • Linea semilunaris
      • Inguinal canal
      • Quadratus lumborum
      • Abdominal fascia
      • Pelvic fascia
      • Pelvic diaphragm
        • Levator ani
        • Ischiococcygeus
        • External anal sphincter
    • Triceps Brachii
    • Serratus Anterior
  • Lower Body Muscles
    • Hip Muscles:
      • Gluteus Maximus
      • Gluteus Medius
      • Gluteus Minimus
    • Thigh Muscles (Quadriceps)
      • Rectus Femoris
      • Vastus Lateralis
      • Vastus Medialis
      • Vastus Intermedius
    • Thigh Muscles (Hamstrings)
      • Biceps Femoris
      • Semimembranosus
      • Semitendinosus
    • Adductors (Inner Thigh Muscles):
      • Adductor Magnus
      • Adductor Longus
      • Adductor Brevis
      • Gracilis
    • Hip Flexors:
      • Iliopsoas
      • Tensor Fasciae Latae (TFL)
    • Calf Muscles:
      • Gastrocnemius
      • Soleus
      • Tibialis Posterior
    • Shin Muscles (Anterior Leg)
      • Tibialis Anterior
    • Hip Rotators (Deep Muscles):
      • Piriformis
      • Gemellus Superior and Inferior
      • Obturator Internus and Externus

Alimentary System

  • Mouth
    • Oral Cavity
    • Teeth
    • Tongue
    • Lips
    • Salivary Glands Major & Minor
  • Uvula
  • Fauces
  • Pharynx
  • Stomach
  • Small intestine
  • Large intestine
  • Liver
  • Gall Bladder Pancreas

Respiratory System

  • Nose
  • Larynx
  • Trachea
  • Bronchi
  • Lungs

Urinary system

  • Kidney
    • Nephrons
    • Renal arteries
    • Renal veins
    • Renal pelvis
  • Ureter
  • Urinary bladder
  • Female urethra
  • Male urethra

Human Nervous system

  • Central nervous system
    • Meninges
    • Spinal cord
    • Brain
  • Peripheral nervous system
    • Cranial nerves
    • Spinal nerves
    • Autonomic division (Autonomic nervous system)

Cardiovascular system

  • Heart
    • Chordae tendinae
    • Right atrium
    • Right ventricle
    • Left atrium
    • Left ventricle
    • Endocardium
    • Myocardium
    • Pericardial cavity
    • Pericardium
  • Arteries
    • Pulmonary trunk
    • Aorta
  • Veins
    • Veins of heart
    • Pulmonary veins
    • Superior vena cava
    • Inferior vena cava
    • Hepatic portal vein
  • Lymphatic trunks and ducts
    • Thoracic duct
    • Cisterna chyli

Human Bone Anatomy

Vertebral Column or Spine

The vertebral column, or the spine, is an essential human body part of the axial skeleton. It safeguards the spinal cord and nerves while maintaining an upright posture.

This complex skeletal framework bears most of the body’s weight to maintain a vertical pose. Its different feature lies in a flexible rod found in all chordates into a segmented array of bones referred to as vertebrae.

These vertebrae are interposed with intervertebral discs, which enhance the spine’s durability and flexibility.
Each vertebra is named according to its position within the spinal column.

The spinal canal is enclosed within the vertebral column, a protective cavity that envelops and shields the spinal cord.

Spine Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

Vertebrae

  1. Cervical Vertebrae (C1-C7)
  2. Thoracic Vertebrae (T1-T12)
  3. Lumbar Vertebrae (L1-L5)
  4. Sacrum
  5. Coccyx

Spinal Curves

  1. Cervical Curve
  2. Thoracic Curve
  3. Lumbar Curve
  4. Sacral Curve

Ligaments

  1. Anterior Longitudinal Ligament (ALL)
  2. Posterior Longitudinal Ligament (PLL)
  3. Ligamentum Flavum
  4. Interspinous Ligaments
  5. Supraspinous Ligament

Spinal Cord

Gray Matter
  1. Dorsal Horns
  2. Ventral Horns
  3. Lateral Horns
  4. Intermediolateral Nucleus (IML)
White Matter
  1. Dorsal Columns
  2. Lateral Columns
  3. Ventral Columns
Ascending Tracts
  1. Dorsal Column-Medial Lemniscus Pathway
  2. Spinothalamic Tract
  3. Spinocerebellar Tracts
Descending Tracts
  1. Corticospinal Tracts
  2. Rubrospinal Tract
  3. Vestibulospinal Tract
  • Intervertebral Discs
  • Spinal Canal
  • Meninges
  • Nerve Roots
  • Spinal Nerves
  • Facet Joints
  • Spinous Processes
  • Transverse Processes
  • Vertebral Foramen
  • Vertebral Arches

Read More –

Femur

The femur, scientifically called the thigh bone, is essential within the human skeletal system. It is in the lower limb and bone between the hip and knee joints. This bone shapes the hip joint as its proximal end and forms an articulation point with the pelvic socket.

Moreover, the femur’s distal end engages with the tibia and patella to form a knee joint structure. Beyond this, the femur bears the human body’s weight during stationary and dynamic activities.

Additionally, the femur is an essential anchor point for muscles, tendons, and ligaments that help move the hip and knee joints.

Femur Bone Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

Proximal End

  • Head
  • Neck
  • Greater Trochanter
  • Lesser Trochanter
  • Intertrochanteric Crest

Joints

  • Hip Joint
  • Knee Joint

Shaft

  • Medial & Lateral Borders
  • Anterior, Medial & Lateral Surfaces
  • Medial & Lateral Supracondylar Ridges
  • Pectineal Line
  • Spiral Line
  • Patellar Groove
  • Femoral Shaft Angles
  • Nutrient Foramen

Distal End

  • Medial & Lateral Condyles
  • Intercondylar fossa
  • Medial & Lateral Epicondylar Fossae
  • Medial & Lateral Intermuscular Septa
  • Gluteal Tuberosity
  • Adductor Tubercle
  • Medullary Cavity
  • Medullary Cavity

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Human Muscle Anatomy

Numerous muscles exist in our bodies, each serving various functions. Let’s examine the major muscles, understanding their different parts and how they contribute to movement and strength.

Biceps

The biceps brachii is a large muscle in the anterior upper arm that extends from the shoulder to the elbow. It has two unique heads, the long and short heads, which emerge from the scapula. These heads join together to produce a muscular system that joins to the upper section of the forearm.

Origins

  • Short head
  • Long head
  • Brachialis

Innervation

  • Musculocutaneous nerve (C5- C6)

Blood supply

  • Branches of brachial artery 

Function—The biceps brachii is responsible for forearm flexion and supination. It helps with various activities and daily tasks. Curling the forearm at the elbow joint is referred to as forearm flexion.

Bicep Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

Read More – Ultimate Guide to Bicep Anatomy: Parts, Names, Functions & Diagram

Triceps

The triceps brachii is an extensor muscle located at the back of the upper limb in various vertebrates. These muscles originate from the humerus and scapula, which comprise three distinct parts: the medial, lateral, and long heads.

Origins

  • Long Head
  • Lateral Head
  • Medial Head

Innervation

  • Radial nerve (C6-C8)

Blood supply

  • Deep brachial artery
  • Superior ulnar collateral artery

Function—The triceps brachii muscle extends the forearm at the elbow joint. Its long head helps extend and adduct the arm at the shoulder joint.

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Forearm

The forearm is the part of your arm between the elbow and wrist. It is made up of two bones: the outer radius and the inner ulna.

It has 20 muscles grouped into front (flexor) and back (extensor) compartments, which control elbow, wrist, and hand movements.

There are two types of muscles: front flexors and back extensors. Fascia, like wrapping, organizes and supports these muscles around the ulna and radius.

Two structures, the intermuscular septum and interosseous membrane, create compartments and offer extra support.

The septum starts from the front of the radius, connecting with the forearm fascia, while the membrane forms between the radius and ulna.

Forearm Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

Flexor Muscles

  • Flexor Digitorum Profundus
  • Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
  • Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
  • Flexor Carpi Radialis
  • Flexor Pollicis Longus

Pronator Muscles

  • Pronator Teres
  • Pronator Quadratus

Bones

  • Ulna
  • Radius

Extensor Muscles

  • Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
  • Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis
  • Extensor Digitorum
  • Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
  • Extensor Digiti Minimi
  • Supinator Muscle
  • Abductor Pollicis Longus
  • Extensor Pollicis Brevis
  • Extensor Pollicis Longus
  • Extensor Indicis

Joints

  • Elbow Joint
  • Radioulnar Joints

Other Muscles

  • Brachioradialis
  • Anconeus
  • Palmaris Longus
  • Extensor Indicis

Nerves

  • Median Nerve
  • Radial Nerve
  • Ulnar Nerve

Thigh

The thigh is a significant part of human anatomy in the lower limb. It is between the hip and houses the pelvis and the knee joint. The femur is the prominent bone within the thigh and has exceptional strength, density, and robustness.

Functionally, the femur is a ball and socket joint at the hip and a modified hinge joint at the knee. Remarkably, the thigh region houses various main muscles in the human body.

These muscles enable various body movements, including bending, flexing, and rotational.

Additionally, they bear most of the body’s total weight. Furthermore, these muscles help maintain the structural integrity of the hips and legs.

Thigh Muscle Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

Read More – Complete Guide to Thigh Muscle Anatomy: Learn Parts, Names & Diagram

Anterior Thigh Muscles

  1. Sartorius
  2. Rectus femoris
  3. Vastus medialis
  4. Vastus lateralis
  5. Vastus intermedius

Posterior Thigh Muscles

  1. Biceps femoris
  2. Semimembranosus
  3. Semitendinosus

Femur

  1. Proximal end
  2. Shaft
  3. Distal end

Medial Thigh Muscles

  1. Gracilis
  2. Pectineus
  3. Adductor longus
  4. Adductor brevis
  5. Adductor Magnus
  6. Obturator externus

Human Body Parts – Joint

Wrist Joint

In human anatomy, the wrist is scientifically termed the carpus or carpal bones. It is a crucial part of the hand’s structure, consisting of eight distinct bones that create the foundational framework for the upper part of the hand.

The wrist joint is scientifically known as the radiocarpal joint. It acts as the vital connection between the radius and the carpal bones and extends to include both the carpus and the lower portions of the forearm bones.

The metacarpus is formed by the proximal sections of the five metacarpal bones. A network of interconnected joints exists among these anatomical components, making hand movement possible.

Flexor Muscles

  • Flexor carpi ulnaris
  • Flexor carpi radialis
  • Flexor digitorum superficialis

Ligaments

  • Palmar radiocarpal joint
  • Dorsal radiocarpal ligament
  • Ulnar collateral ligament
  • Radial collateral ligament

Extensor Muscles

  • Extensor carpi radialis longus
  • Extensor carpi radialis brevis
  • Extensor carpi ulnaris
  • Extensor digitorum

Blood Supply

  • From the branches of the dorsal and palmar carpal arches.

Innervation

  • The anterior interosseous nerve comes from the median nerve (C5-T1)
  • The posterior interosseous nerve comes from the radial nerve (C7-C8)
  • The deep and dorsal branches of the ulnar nerve come from (C8-T1).
Wrist Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

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Knee Joint

The knee joint, or a synovial joint, is an essential link between the femur, tibia, and patella bones. It is the body’s largest joint, mainly allowing leg bending and straightening. It contains two primary components: the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral articulations.

The tibiofemoral joint forms a connection between the tibia and the femur, while the patellofemoral joint forms with the patella with the femur.

Your knees are vital in supporting your body weight and allowing leg movement. This joint helps in activities like walking, running, and jumping.

Flexion Muscles

  • Biceps femoris
  • Semitendinosus
  • Semimembranosus

Extension Muscles

  • Quadriceps femoris
    • Rectus femoris
    • Vastus lateralis
    • Vastus medialis
    • Vastus intermedius

Innervation

  • Femoral nerve
  • Tibial nerve
  • Common fibular nerves
  • Posterior division of the obturator nerve

Extracapsular Ligaments

  • Patellar ligament
  • Medial and lateral patellar retinacula
  • The tibial (medial) collateral ligament
  • Fibular (lateral) collateral ligament
  • Oblique popliteal ligament
  • Arcuate popliteal ligament
  • Anterolateral ligament

Joint

  • Tibiofemoral joint
  • Patellofemoral joint

Intracapsular ligaments

  • An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
  • Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)
  • Medial meniscus,
  • Lateral meniscus

Blood supply

  • Genicular branches of lateral circumflex femoral artery
  • Femoral artery
  • Posterior tibial artery
  • Anterior tibial artery
  • Popliteal artery

Read More –

Knee Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

Ankle Joint

Your ankle is a hinge joint connecting your lower leg and foot. It is a hinge-like joint formed by the talus, tibia, and fibula bones.

The bony bump on the lower fibula (lateral malleolus) forms the outer boundary on one side, and the bony bump on the lower tibia (medial malleolus) creates the inner boundary. Together, they make up the ankle mortise.

The talus bone acts like a connector, linking with the calcaneus below and the navicular in front. The top part of the talus has a smooth surface, allowing comfortable up-and-down movement of your foot.

It snugly fits between the bony bumps, making the ankle most stable when you lift your toes towards your shin (dorsiflexion).

Strong ligaments act like rugged rubber bands on either side of the ankle to provide stability.

Plantar flexion muscles

  • Gastrocnemius, soleus
  • Flexor digitorum longus
  • Flexor hallucis longus
  • Fibularis longus
  • Tibialis posterior

Eversion muscles

  • Fibularis longus
  • Fibularis tertius
  • Fibularis brevis

Dorsiflexion muscles

  • Tibialis anterior
  • Extensor digitorum longus
  • Extensor hallucis longus
  • Fibularis tertius

Ligaments

  • Anterior talofibular
  • Posterior talofibular
  • Calcaneofibular
  • Deltoid
  • Fibular collateral ligaments

Inversion muscles

  • Tibialis anterior
  • Tibialis posterior

Innervation

  • Deep fibular
  • Tibial
  • Sural nerves

Blood supply

  • Anterior tibial
  • Posterior tibial
  • Fibular arteries

Shoulder Joint

The human shoulder anatomy has three bones: the collarbone, shoulder blade, and upper arm bone. These bones are connected by joints, with the main one being the shoulder joint or glenohumeral joint.

Other joints like the acromioclavicular joint are also part of the shoulder. The shoulder joint allows circular rotation and lifting of the arm away from the body.

It’s like a ball sitting in a socket formed by the shoulder blade. There’s a soft tissue envelope called the joint capsule surrounding the shoulder joint, lined with a smooth synovial membrane.

The shoulder’s stability is maintained by a group of four muscles called the rotator cuff. These muscles attach to the shoulder blade and the upper arm bone. They are the supraspinatus, subscapularis, infraspinatus, and teres minor.

Shoulder Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

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Human Anatomy – Alimentary System

Mouth

The mouth is necessary for digestion. It is a complex structure with different parts that work together to make the digestion system more efficient.

The lips create two regions: the vestibule and the oral cavity. The tongue occupies the central cavity and is surrounded by teeth, cheeks, and the isthmus of the fauces at the back.

The hard palate forms the front roof, and the soft palate makes up the rear, with the uvula hanging down.
The inner lining is called the oral mucosa. It is made of stratified squamous epithelium.

Salivary glands provide fluid to keep the mouth moist. Nerves and blood vessels form a network essential for the mouth’s diverse functions in human life.

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Mouth Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

Teeth

Teeth are essential for chewing food and helping with digestion. Although they may look like bones, they’re ectodermal organs similar to hair and skin.

In adults, the 32 permanent teeth work together to cut, tear, mix, and grind food into smaller pieces. The tongue and oropharynx shape the food into a ball for easy swallowing.

Teeth have four main layers. The outer layer, called Enamel, is the hardest substance in the body and protects against cavity-causing bacteria.

Below the Enamel is dentin, a less intense layer. If Enamel wears away, it exposes dentin, increasing the risk of cavities.

The tooth root is covered by cementum, which, along with periodontal tissues, anchors the tooth in the jaw. The innermost layer, tooth pulp, houses nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissues, contributing to overall tooth health.

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Tooth Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

Lips

The lips are an essential part of the human face, pivotal in expressing emotions, talking, feeling, chewing, and romantic moments. Soft structures connected to the jaws are visible in many animals, including humans.

The upper and lower lips are scientifically called labium superius oris and labium inferius oris. Both lips have inner mucosal membranes, a colored vermilion layer, and outer skin.

In animals, including humans, lips are soft and flexible, helping with tasks like eating (such as sucking and swallowing) and forming sounds for speech.

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Lips Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

Human Anatomy – Respiratory System

Nose

The nose is an essential part of our face. Its primary function is to let air inside our body. During breathing, the nose filters, warms, and adds moisture to the air. It has bones and cartilage, which give it a unique shape.

Inside the nose, there are shell-like bones called nasal conchae. The tiny hairs in our nostrils act as filters that stop large particles from entering our lungs.

If something irritates the inside of our nose, like dust or allergens, our body makes us sneeze to get rid of them.

The nose is also essential for our sense of smell. It gives each person a unique look, which adds beauty to our face. Common issues like a stuffy nose or nosebleeds can affect how well our nose works and how we feel.

Nose Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

Human Anatomy – Sense Organs

Eye

Our eyes are incredible organs that respond to light and allow us to see and understand the world around us. The human brain can’t sense the environment directly.

Our eyes collect crucial information about what’s happening and help us to see things and keep our body balanced.

Most people have two eyes that work together to give us a broad view—about 200 degrees side-to-side and 135 degrees up and down. When our eyes cooperate well, we can perceive depth and see things in 3D and colors.

It’s important to note the difference between sight and vision. Sight is what our eyes do, capturing images and light. Vision is the whole process—from the eyes sending signals to the brain interpreting those signals into meaningful images.

Eye Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

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Ear

Your ears help us hear and stay balanced. When sound enters your ear, it makes your eardrum vibrate. This vibration passes through tiny bones in your middle ear, making the sound louder. Then, in your inner ear, tiny hair cells turn the vibrations into electrical signals and send them to your brain.

Your inner ear also has fluid-filled canals that help you stay balanced. These canals have hair-like sensors. When you move, the fluid shifts and sends signals to your brain.

Your brain uses these signals to help your muscles keep you steady. So, your ears do much more than hear—they help you stay on your feet!

Ear Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

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Tongue

The tongue is a fantastic muscle in humans’ mouths. It helps with chewing, swallowing, and digestion. Taste buds are on its surface, covered by tiny structures called lingual papillae. It allows us to experience different flavors.

Saliva keeps the tongue sensitive and moist. The network of nerves and blood vessels provides its rich supply. Besides its role in digestion, the tongue also naturally cleans teeth.

The primary role of the tongue in humans is the ability to speak and vocalize other animals. The human tongue has two parts: the front oral section and the back pharyngeal part.

A vertical fibrous tissue called the lingual septum divides it into left and right sides, creating a median sulcus groove. This unique structure makes the tongue versatile and functional.

Intrinsic Muscles

  • Superior longitudinal
  • Vertical, transverse, inferior longitudinal muscles

Lymphatics

  • Marginal
  • Central, dorsal
  • Submandibular
  • Jugulo-omohyoid
  • Deep cervical lymph nodes

Extrinsic Muscles

  • Genioglossus muscles
  • Hypoglossus muscles
  • Styloglossus muscles
  • Palatoglossus muscles

Blood Supply

  • Lingual artery
  • Ascending palatine
  • Tonsillar
  • Ascending pharyngeal arteries

Innervation

  • Hypoglossal nerve
  • Pharyngeal plexus
  • Lingual nerve
  • Glossopharyngeal nerve
  • Facial nerve
  • Vagus nerve
  • Chorda tympani

Surfaces

  • Dorsal (Superior)
  • Ventral (inferior)
Tongue Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

Human Body Parts – Integument

Nails

Nails, found on our fingers and toes, are rigid plates made of a protein called alpha-keratin. This protein is also in other animals’ claws, hooves, and horns.

Nails are attached to the nail bed and can be used for scratching. The visible part is the “nail plate,” which is made of hard keratin and about half a millimeter thick.

Nails have lateral folds on each side and a proximal nail fold at the base. The cuticle, a thin layer of skin, protects and enhances sensory experiences.

Nail Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

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Hair

Hair is a protein thread that grows from skin pockets and is called follicles. It’s a key feature of mammals, including humans. The follicles cover our body, producing thick or fine hair except in some smooth areas.

People are mainly interested in hair growth, types, and care, but it’s also a vital part of alpha-keratin protein.
Humans have about five million hair follicles.

Hair provides protection from cold and UV rays, makes sebum, and affects our emotions when its growth or structure is off balance.

Skin

Our skin is a protective shield of water, protein, fats, and minerals. It has three main layers: the epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis.

The skin defends our body from germs, UV light, chemicals, and injuries. It also helps regulate our temperature and lets us feel sensations like hot and cold through our nerves.

Different human body parts have different thicknesses of skin. The palms and soles have the thickest skin because they are hairless and have an extra layer called the stratum lucidum.

Even though the upper back is thick, it’s considered “thin skin” because the epidermis is thinner than hairless skin.

Human Anatomy – Cardiovascular System

Heart

The heart is a vital organ of muscles that pumps blood throughout the body and delivers oxygen and nutrients to every human body part. While doing this, it removes waste like carbon dioxide from the body.

In humans, the heart is located in the chest’s central space between the lungs and leaning left. It is around the size of a closed fist and weighs around 10 ounces in adults. However, it varies with factors like body size and gender.

Humans, birds, and mammals have four heart chambers – right atria, upper left, lower left, and right ventricles. The right side is the right heart, and the left is the left heart.

The heart is separated by the muscular wall called the septum. Blood is pumped from the right side of the heart through the pulmonary arteries for oxygen, and this blood goes to the lungs.

Special valves on the right side of the heart prevent blood from backflowing into the heart. After the lungs receive oxygen, the left side gets the blood through the pulmonary veins.

Arteries

Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood from the heart to all our organs. They work closely with veins and the heart, like tubes that transport blood from the heart to all parts of the body.

This blood, with oxygen and nutrients, is essential for adequately functioning the different organs. Arteries can change based on signals from the nervous system and outside factors like pressure and temperature.

Nerves in the arteries help them respond to these signals. Hormones like catecholamines can narrow or widen arteries, influencing blood pressure and flow. So, arteries are dynamic vessels that ensure our body gets the oxygen and nutrients it needs.

Human Body Parts

Foot

The foot is a complicated part of the human anatomy, consisting of many bones, joints, muscles, and tendons. It helps us walk and stand up straight. The foot includes everything below the ankle joint.

The ankle joint is where the shinbone (tibia), the thinner bone next to it (fibula), and a bone called the talus meet.

There are 26 bones in the foot, divided into three groups: the hindfoot, midfoot, and forefoot. These bones have cartilage covering their surfaces, where they meet each other to form joints.

The joints are surrounded by capsules and ligaments, which keep them stable. Twenty-nine muscles move the foot and ankle bones, which are connected to the bones by tendons.

Foot Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

Arm

The upper extremity, or arm, is a crucial part of the human anatomy. It has three main sections: the upper arm, forearm, and hand. It starts from the shoulder to the fingers and includes 30 bones, nerves, blood vessels, and muscles.

Starting at the shoulder joint, often called a ball-and-saucer joint. It allows for a wide range of movement, though it’s less stable than the hip joint.

Next is the elbow joint, a hinge joint that facilitates arm bending and straightening. This joint also gives the forearm the unique abilities of pronation and supination.

The wrist joint is ellipsoidal or condyloid, providing a good range of motion. The carpal bones have intercarpal joints, which allow some movement. The interphalangeal joints in the fingers act as basic hinge joints.

Arm Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

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Hand

A hand is a helpful part at the end of our arm. Humans and some animals like monkeys and koalas have hands. Even raccoons are said to have hands but don’t have thumbs like we do.

A human hand usually has five parts called fingers. We count the thumb as one of them. There are 27 bones in a hand, not depending on a particular bone. There are 14 finger bones connecting to the wrist bones.

Each hand has five long metacarpal bones and eight small carpal bones. Thus, a hand comprises fingers, thumbs, and bones that help it move and work.

Also, it contains various muscles, tendons, and ligaments, which help to do multiple operations like gripping and holding something in hand.

Hand Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

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Finger

Fingers are essential parts of our hands and similar limbs in many animals. Most animals with limbs, like humans and primates, have five fingers, while shorter ones are called toes.

Fingers are flexible and opposable in humans. They help us feel things and make precise movements, and they are vital for skills like grabbing and moving objects.

The thumb is the first digit, followed by the index finger, the middle finger, the ring finger, and the little finger, also known as the pinkie.

Finger Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

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Thumb

The thumb is a particular part of the hand with impressive flexibility. It can bend at the knuckle and touch the tips of other fingers. It enables various essential movements for holding and grasping objects.

The thumb consists of the metacarpal bone connected to the trapezium in the wrist. This bone is linked to the proximal phalanx, which then connects to the distal phalanx, forming the tip of the thumb.

Unlike the other fingers, the thumb lacks an intermediate phalanx bone. Oxygenated blood is mainly supplied to the thumb through the Princeps pollicis artery.

The thumb muscles, labeled ‘pollicis,’ include the extensor, flexor, opponents, and abductor muscles, with additional distinctions like longus and brevis.

One crucial muscle, the first dorsal interosseus, plays a significant role in thumb movement.

Thumb Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram